The genesis of ECOVAP‘s enhanced evaporation technology and business comes from the oil/gas “produced water” sector. In the U.S. alone, the oil/gas industry generates about 21 billion barrels of contaminated water per year since nearly all hydrocarbon reserves are blended with water and also because additional water may be used in the fracking business. Over 93% of this wastewater is injected into underground Class II saltwater injection wells (SWDs). However, SWDs have come under increasing regulatory scrutiny as they have been linked to human-induced earthquakes and freshwater aquifer contamination. In addition, the trucking and transport of this wastewater to the SWDs, and the pressure required to push this water into underground cavities, implies high energy costs and CO2. With ECOVAP‘s biomimicry technology, the volume of this wastewater is reduced by 70% to 90%, implying lower disposal and environmental costs.

Produced Water Report (2019)

Primary Authors/Oversight: John Baza, Utah Division of Oil, Gas & Mining; Shellie Chard, Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality

Overview of the current legal, regulatory and operational frameworks for produced water handling, treatment/reuse and disposal, including for conventional and unconventional oil and gas, and also produced water from non-oil/gas operations.
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The Intensification of the Water Footprint of Hydraulic Fracturing

By: Andrew J. Kondash, Nancy E. Lauer, Avner Vengosh (2019)

-Explanation of how and why water usage and disposal needs is increasing over time.
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U.S. Produced Water Volumes and Management Practices in 2012

By: John Veil; Veil Environmental LLC, 2015

A comprehensive overview of 21bn bbl US oil/gas wastewater (i.e., “produced water”) treatment and disposal business, including state-by-state market size, environmental challenges and regulations, and trends.
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ECOVAP continues to extend its product offering beyond its initial focus on oil/gas-produced water to many industries that need to dispose of or concentrate wastewater for “water mining” and “beneficial reuse.” In all cases, ECOVAP‘s value is to greatly reduce the volume of wastewater through the natural evaporation process, being enhanced by over 60 times at low cost. Thus, the cost of disposal (including transport and final injection into a disposal well) decreases proportionately to the lower volume of what is evaporated away. Similarly, the cost for “water miners” that are increasingly extracting valuable elements and molecules (i.e., rare earths, lithium, metals, freshwater, etc.) from the wastewater generally need to use less energy or chemicals in their processing. ECOVAP‘s pipeline now includes more non-oil/gas clients (mainly in power generation wastewater disposal, rare earth extraction and mining tailing pond management andremediation) versus its original business in produced water. Below are several research reports that detail other businesses’ need for ECOVAP‘s enhanced evaporation.

Mining and Tailings Ponds

By: Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland 2018

Tailing Dam Failures and Statistical Model for Discharge Volume and Runout.
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Powerplant Water Effluent Guidelines (Updated by EPA in 2015)

By: Ron Jordan EPA

This document provides Steam Electric Power Generating Effluent Guidelines (Includes rules and regulation changes)
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Evaporation in Concentrated Brine Disposal

By: Department of Soil and Water Science, Department of Bioresource and Agricultural Engineering. (2000)

Use of Evaporation Ponds for Brine Disposal in Desalination Plants
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