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Geoscientists have found that even shallow wastewater injection – not just deep wastewater injections – can also cause widespread earthquake activity. This conclusion goes against many geoscientists’ prior thinking, but is explained by the interaction of poroelasticity of surface flows vs. solid deformations. The study was done in the Delaware/Permian Basin of Western Texas which has seen an exponential rise in seismicity with increasing shale exploration.

Article:
Geoscientists Find That Shallow Wastewater Injection in Oil and Gas Production Fields Drives Deep Earthquakes in Texas